Category Archives: Comic Book Critique

Alan Moore’s Novel Use of Point of View

“Superman/Swamp Thing: The Jungle Line, 2000 AD, a Mister Mxyzptlk, A Small Killing, A1#1, Abby Arcane, Alan Moore, Anthony Lilliman, antiheros, “Pog”, Big Numbers, daughter of Miracleman, Dazzle Comics, DC Comics Presents #85, Delia Surredige, deus ex machina, Dr. Manhattan, E.T., Eric Finch, Ethan Crane, Evey, Ghost Dance, Great Britain, Hallucinogenic POV, hippie, Intelligent ethically ambiguous POV, Kryptonian fungus, Larkhill, LSD, Marvelman, metafictional, Milo, Miracleman, Miracleman #13, Miracleman #14, Miracleman #16, narrative. Alien POV, Norsefire, Omniman, peyote, Pog comic strip, Pogo, point of view, POV, Qys, rebooted. Supreme #53, Skizz, Story within a story POV, Stream of consciousness POV, superhero universe reboots, Supreme, Survivor guilt, Swamp Thing, Swamp Thing v2, Szazs, Tales of the Black Freighter, the Comedian, The Green, The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, The Punisher, V is for Vendetta, V is for Vendetta #5, v2, Vertigo, Walt Kelly, Warpsmiths. Qys, Watchmen, Watchmen #12, Watchmen #4, Watchmen #9, Wolverine, WW III

Alan Moore is one of the top comic book writers of all time.  Alan Moore uses many specialized techniques to entertain the reader including superhero universe reboots but another technique he uses to make his stories especially engrossing is the novel use of point of view (POV) in his narrative.  Moore uses alien POV, hallucinogenic POV, intelligent ethically ambiguous POV, stream of consciousness POV, and a story within a story POV in order to make his fiction more interesting.

Alien POV

Dr. Manhattan is Superman type character in the series Watchmen and exists simultaneously in the past, present and future as part of his superhuman condition.  Dr. Manhattan may have been human at one point but due to an accident became a being that is growing distant from humanity.  Ozymandias on Dr. Manhattan, “If there’s one thing in this cosmos that that man isn’t capable of doing it’s having a political bias. Believe me… you have to meet him to understand. I mean, which do you prefer, red ants or black ants?” Dr. Manhattan can also make multiple versions of himself and does this for practical purposes but also because this is a point of view that he finds interesting.  Dr. Manhattan can perceive subatomic particles that exist for nanoseconds.  Dr. Manhattan has developed a nihilistic view of reality due to his superhuman perceptions that is shared by very few human beings but The Comedian is one of them (see Figure 1 below).

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Figure 1- Watchmen #4 (of 12) – Page 20

Dr. Manhattan is so removed from the human POV that he almost does not intervene to save the world from WW III (see Figure 2)!below

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Figure 2 – Watchmen #9 (of 12) – Page 11

And true love does not change his mind but instead he has some sort of eureka experience related to human individuality relative to probability (see Figure 3 below) and this insight causes him to try to stop WW III.

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Figure 3 – Watchmen #9 (of 12) – Page 28

The Swamp Thing discovers in Swamp Thing, v2, #21, the first issue of this character that Alan Moore wrote, that he is actually a plant not a human and this knowledge causes him to change how he views  humanity and temporarily flip out and commit his first murder.  Alan Moore decides to turn a superhero that was a man with plant features into a plant period with a plant POV!  This story is aptly titled “The Anatomy Lesson” and is a POV driven plot (see Figure 4 below).

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Figure 4 – Swamp Thing V2 #21 – Page 13

Alan Moore decided a superhero even more removed from humanity would be more interesting.  The Swamp Thing can also perceive and move through “The Green” which is some sort of dimension that contains the consciousness of all plant life.  As a plant and later an elemental, the Swamp Thing sees the human struggle between good and evil in a larger transhuman context.  Humans are one of many species and the welfare of humans at the expense of the environment is not acceptable.

In a two issue story arc, the story is told from the POV of an alien that happens to be an Earthling!  In “Mysteries in Space”, Swamp Thing, v2, #57 and “Exiles” Swamp Thing, v2, #58, Adam Strange is the hero of planet Rann.  The inhabitants are more advanced than Earthlings and have difficulty doing “primitive” things like fighting and procreating.  Adam Strange has slowly become aware that the Rannians see him as an ape-man errand boy and the statute erected in his honor as the hero of Rann is a façade to flatter him into doing their bidding.  There is plenty of action in the story but Adam Strange’s internal dialogue about he is perceived in the Rannians is actually more interesting.  In the end his relatively, to Earthlings, Rannian girlfriend, Alanna Strange, is found to be pregnant and this is the first pregnancy in quite some time on Rann.  The Earthling “alien” has done the “job” he was probably recruited and manipulated for in the first place (see Figure 5 below)!

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Figure 5 – Swamp Thing V2 #58 – Page 23

Another story of Swamp Thing tells the story totally from the point of view of an alien!  In “Loving the Alien”, Swamp Thing, v2, #60, an alien that is a planet made of biomechanical material is telling the story of her courtship of the Swamp Thing.  I guess alien biomechanical planets have a hard time finding suitable mates and all prior attempts at failed and often caused the death of the potential mate.  Swamp Thing tried to escape but she used a “chronofracture” which reverses time to get a second chance at catching the Swamp Thing and she has her way with him.  She transfers all the information biological and otherwise into her reproductive system and voila little baby aliens that want to hear the story of their mothers courtship and mom wonders if dad would love his children if he had gotten to know them (see Figure 6 below)!

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Figure 6 – Swamp Thing V2 #60 – Page 19

Miracleman is another Superman type character radically rebooted by Alan Moore who reflects on his superhuman condition has changed how he views the world.  Even his “father” who is a genius by human standards cannot understand the perspective of Miracleman in the opinion of Miracleman (see Figure 7 below).

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Figure 7 – Miracleman 07 #1440 – Page 16

Miracleman’s perceptions evolve and he recognizes his superhuman condition probably distances him from humanity and he sees this as a negative (see Figure 8 below).

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Figure 8 – Miracleman 16 #1440 – Page 29

The Miracleman’s universe includes two alien empires including the Qys and the Warpsmiths. The Qys can change bodies the way we change clothes and this radically changes their sense of self.  This ability changes the aesthetic of the Qys so radically that they are ruled by what to a human would seem like a giant monster (see Figure 9 below).

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Figure 9 – Miracleman 13 #1440 – Page 5

The Warpsmiths have the power of teleportation and with this power also perceive time very differently than humans.  There are hints that this power changes how they perceive the universe and their role in the universe (See Figure 10 below).

10-A1 Ghost Dance Warpsmiths

Figure 10 – A1 Ghost Dance Warpsmiths

For Alan Moore, superpowers are not just tools for fighting crime but create sensibilities that change POV radically.  The daughter of Miracleman realizes that Miracleman’s perspective is too human for her growth and development as a superhuman and leaves her father to go live with the Qys despite being a newborn (see Figure 11 below).

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Figure 11 – Miracleman 14 #1440 – Page 7

Skizz is a character that Alan Moore created for 2000 AD.  Skizz resembles an E.T. the movie sort of alien and one biker actually refers to Skizz as being like E.T. in the movie.  Skizz is an interpreter and not very formidable physically and we get to see Earth from the point of view of an alien that finds us barbaric (see Figure 12 below).

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Figure 12 – Skizz – Page 14

More than any other comic book that I am familiar with, the story of Skizz revolves around the POV of an alien rather than relying on action for plot delivery.

In Swamp Thing v2, #32, “Pog”,  Alan Moore treats us to an alien that in a manner similar to Skizz provides an alien point of view in which we are seen as barbarian but even more than that a savage planet.  On the planet of Pog, even different species of animals coexist but in our planet a cartoonish crocodile will be eaten real crocodiles (see Figure 13 below).

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Figure 13 – Swamp Thing V2 #32 – Page 17

There is a metafictional aspect to Pog since Moore is comparing two types of comic book universe not just aliens and Earthlings.  The comic strip Pogo universe of Walt Kelly is being compared with the grittier Vertigo universe that Swamp Thing inhabits.

In Swamp Thing v2, #61, “All Flesh is Grass”, Swamp Thing meets a Green Lantern (Medphyll) on his alien home world in which plant life is sentient.  The title “All Flesh is Grass” is from the Bible and refers to the transitory nature of existence.  The story is told from the POV of Medphyll and the reader is treated to a description of an alien world of sentient plants and the art, religion and plant based architecture of the planet are described in detail.  The Green Lantern oath reflects the plant POV of the ring bearer:

“In forest dark or glade beferned,
No blade of grass shall go unturned.
Let those that have the daylight spurned,
Tread not where this green lamp has burned.”

The Swamp Thing is the horror from the stars in this story and we are reminded that what is a hero or a monster is a matter of perspective.  The Swamp Thing inhabits the form of Medphyll’s deceased and beloved teacher Jothra and the Swamp Thing and the reader are given a tour of this very interesting planet (See figure 14 below).

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Figure 14 – Swamp Thing V2 #61 – Page 18

Aliens like Dr. Manhattan, the Swamp Thing, Miracleman, Skizz and Pog view the world in a radically different way that in turn change how they think.  Super powers do not just let the character smash mountains but change how the characters perceive mountains and this is actually often more interesting.

Alan Moore wrote three stories about the Green Lantern Corps for DC Comics.  In the story “In Blackest Story”, Tales of the Green Lantern Corps Annual #3 (1987), the Green Lantern Katma Tui has a very difficult time explaining the whole concept of the bright light of Green Lanterns fighting darkness because the alien, Rot Lop Fan,  Katman Tui is talking to cannot see and has no concept of light (see Figure 15 below).

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Figure 15 – “In Blackest Night” Tales of the Green Lantern Corps Annual #3

In “Mogo Doesn’t Socialize”, Green Lantern, v2, #188, the bad guy cannot find the Green Lantern until he realizes the Green Lantern Mogo is not an inhabitant of the planet but the planet itself (see Figure 16 below)!

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Figure 16 – “Mogo Doesn’t Socialize”, Green Lantern #188, v2 – Page 6

In “Tygers”, Tales of the Green Lantern Corps Annual #2 (1986), a hyper rational Green Lantern, Abin Sur, fails to understand how a demon of the Empire of Tears, Qull of the Five Inversions,  can use his perceptual abilities that combine clairvoyance, cunning and an understanding of mortal psychological weaknesses in order to create a death trap with words alone.  Abin Sur feels protected by his scientific world view but in fact the supremely evil POV of the demon allows the demon to murder Abin Sur even though the demon is imprisoned and should be helpless (see Figure 17 below).

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Figure 17 – “Tygers”, Tales of the Green Lantern Corps Annual #2 – Page 12

In all three Green Lantern Corps stories, there are two aliens that have such radically different states of being that their POV makes mutual understanding difficult.  The Green Lantern Corps are aliens.  Moore realized the rich potential in exploring the alien side of the Green Lantern Corps rather than treating them like Earth based super humans that happen to look funny due to a third eye or some other cosmetic difference between the alien and us.  The Green Lantern Corps stories are even more POV centric than the other superhero stories mentioned previously.

Alan Moore develops the Alien POV idea even further in the Omega Men series.  The Omega Men are a team of extraterrestrial superheroes in a solar system other than that of Earth called the Vegan system.  Alan Moore did two back stories for the series that take place in the Vegan system but do not involve the Omega Men directly.  In “Brief Lives”, Omega Men #26, the Spider Guild, giant intelligent spiders, try to conquer giant aliens in the planet Ogyptu that live for millennia and move, think and perceive the world at a glacial pace, literally.  The entire invasion by the Spider Guild over a thirty year period is barely perceived by the giants.  The invasion fails because the POV of the giants is so radically different than that of the Spider Guild that the invasion cannot even be perceived and therefore cannot be successful (see figure 18 below).

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Figure 18 – “Brief Lives”, Omega Men #26 – Page 27

In “A Man’s World”, Omega Men #27, a female xenobiologist, or possibly an anthropologist since she mentions the rules of inter-system anthropology, studies a tribe called the Culacaons that reproduce minus women.  The female alien named Leelyo pays the ultimate price for not understanding the POV of the males in the tribe.  After probably three rereads, the reader figures out that the males of the Culacaons stab giant snails and plant their babies into the giant snails. The reader can infer that the Culcaon male stabs
poor Leelyo and probably deposits the children in her body after stabbing with
her with his Gamugha stick. Apparently, the male tribesman sees the female alien not as a fellow humanoid but as more similar to the giant snails and deserving similar treatment.  From the POV of the male Culacaon Leelyo is more like the giant snails than like him!  This story is widely dismissed as a very poor story.  However, if you reread the story then the horrible truth of the story becomes apparent and the true meaning of the title, “A Man’s World” becomes horrifyingly apparent (see Figure 19 below)!

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Figure 19 – “A Mans World”, Omega Men #27 – Page 24

Hallucinogenic POV

Swamp Thing was radically changed during his tenure under Alan Moore.  The Alan Moore Swamp Thing has tubers growing from his body that more or less has the same effects as peyote.  In “Rite of Spring”, Swamp Thing v2, #34, the Swamp Thing gives his girlfriend Abby Arcane a tuber in order to educate her about his perception of the Earth via The Green (see Figure 20 below).

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Figure 20 – Swamp Thing V2 #34 – Page 12

In “The Return of the Good Gumbo”, Swamp Thing v2, #64, the Swamp Thing again gives his soon to be wife Abby Arcane a tuber to eat since nothing says love like hallucinogenic tubers.  Abby is literally eating a part of her lover and has hallucinations that help her understand how the Swamp Thing perceives the world and they also have really good sex (see Figure 21 below)!

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Figure 21 – Swamp Thing V2 #64 – Page 14

In “Windfall”, Swamp Thing v2, # 43 a hippie named Chester found a tuber lying around the swamp and brought it to Baton Rouge.  Pieces of the tuber end up in a woman named Sandy painfully dying of cancer and she hallucinates a luminous body free of pain and is transported to a radiant heaven like garden in which she dies in the arms of her husband (see Figure 22 below).

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Figure 22 – Swamp Thing V2 #43 – Page 19

A sleazy drug pusher named Milo has a really bad trip and hallucinates some of the very ugly and evil villains the Swamp Thing has encountered.  The tubers as parts of the Swamp Thing apparently contain the memories of the Swamp Thing at some level (see Figure 23 below).

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Figure 23 – Swamp Thing V2 #43 – Page 18

When Chester finds out what happened to Sandy and Milo he theorizes that the tubers bring out what is in your as a person.  Good people have good trips.  Bad people have bad trips.  Chester ponders whether or not to take what is left of the tuber and decides not to.

In V is for Vendetta, the lead detective, Eric Finch takes LSD at the shut down concentration camp Larkhill.  The psychedelic imagery used is disturbing and unnerves the reader.  Finch hallucinates the naked torsos of a man and a woman perched on barbed wire (see Figure 24 below).

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Figure 24 – V For Vendetta #9 – Page 4

Finch hallucinates wearing the striped garb of a prisoner.  Finch has a hallucination about a crowd of black people, presumably killed at the camp and they are friendly towards him but ultimately move away from him and disappear into a wall.  Finch is then transported in to his middle class house but this is also a hallucination.  Finally, Finch takes off all his clothes and experiences freedom from social constraints in the center of Stonehenge.  Stonehenge may or may not be a hallucination.  Eric Finch is using the LSD experience to help him understand how V thinks and to some extent succeeds.  V is an anarchist and Finch does develop an understanding of freedom that helps him in turn understand V.

In DC Comics Presents #85: “Superman/Swamp Thing: The Jungle Line”. Superman is hallucinating due to an infection by a Kryptonian fungus and has flash backs about Krypton that reveal a great deal to the reader about how Superman handles his Kryptonian heritage.  Swamp Thing is perceived as an enemy due to the hallucinations and is almost destroyed.  Some of the more interesting hallucinations Superman has are talking with his empty Clark Kent clothes and the empty suit explains to Superman that he is dying and furthermore that he is nothing special.  Superman seems to suffer from Survivor guilt which manifests in his hallucinations (see Figure 25 below).

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Figure 25 – DC Comics Presents #85 – Page 13

Swamp Thing can enter the hallucinatory world of Superman because this world is in part generated by a “plant”, strictly speaking a fungus is not a plant, and the Swamp Thing takes Superman into “The Green” which breaks contact with the scarlet jungle of the fungus Superman was dying in.  In this plant dimension the Swamp Thing soothes Superman so he can sleep and this allows Superman to recover.

Alan Moore returns to the use of a hallucinogenic plant as a central plot device a third time in “For the Man Who Has Everything”, Superman Annual #11.  This is of course the second time Moore has Superman hallucinating due to a “plant” (see figure 26 below).

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Figure 26 – Annual Superman V1 #11 – Page 12

A large alien plant called the Black Mercy has Superman trapped in a coherent hallucinated world on the planet Krypton and this is supposed to be his deepest desire.  This is the Krypton that would have happened if Krypton had not blown up.  Superman has never been Superman and has a Kryptonian brother and a niece.  This alternate world is supposed to be what the person really wants but soon turns ugly due to Kryptonian xenophobia and presumably this is the unconscious of Superman trying to free himself from the grip of the Black Mercy.  Batman also ends up with the plant on his chest and in his hallucination he is in a world in which his parents were not killed.  Finally, the bad guy, Mongul, ends up with the plant on his chest due to Robin.  Mongol has a hallucination of a world of endless conquest and Superman’s head on a pike.

In all the stories examined, the person hallucinating does gain insight that is often helpful.  The hallucinations are not always pleasant but generally reveal truths rather than being random and meaningless.

Intelligent Ethically Ambiguous POV

Generally in comic books the hero is simplistically good and the villain is simplistically bad.  Alan Moore departs from this practice and presents antiheros.  Comic books have any number of muscular tough guy antiheros like The Punisher and Wolverine but generally ruthless intelligent characters are invariably super villains.  Alan Moore uses intelligent antiheroes that present a compelling argument for ruthless action.

Ozymandias is a major character in Moore series Watchmen.  Ozymandias is considered the smartest man in the world. This very intelligence forces him to see the world differently than his fellow superheroes that are not as intelligent.  Ozymandias is at the upper limits of human intelligence but probably does not possess super intelligence.  The only Watchmen superhero to really agree with the actions of Ozymandias to save the world is Dr. Manhattan who probably possesses out and out super intelligence.  Ozymandias manages to save the world from WW III but kills millions in New York do accomplish this task.  The reader is allowed to share the triumph of Ozymandias directly and the background picture of Alexander the Great cutting the Gordian Knot is intentional (See Figure 27 below).

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Figure 27 – Watchmen #12 (of 12) – Page 20

V in V is for Vendetta is an antihero and is a powerful fighter but what makes him really dangerous is his super intelligence.  V uses strategy to take apart the fascist party Norsefire that rules Great Britain.  V commits various acts that may be considered unethical.  V kills a Bishop, Anthony Lilliman.   However, the bishop is also a pedophile so that’s probably ok.  V kills a doctor, Delia Surredige.  Dr. Surredige has clearly repented for her sins in the concentration camp V was in.  Killing a woman is generally not done by heroes.  Killing someone who has reformed is also not generally done by comic book characters.  V also kills the hired help of Norsefire that happens to be in the way.  V doesn’t do comic book things like use stun guns, non lethal Karate chops, or shoot their pistols out of the hands of henchmen.  Generally V throws knives into the hearts of the henchmen.  Killing the hired help is something the Punisher and Wolverine also do so this is not new ground for a comic book antihero.  V does imprison and torture Evey, a girl he had saved previously, and even used as a side kick.   Evey is clearly an innocent.  V tortures her to set her free by toughening her up!  V does provide the reader with a very eloquent defense of his actions (See Figure 28 below).

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Figure 28 – V For Vendetta #5 – Page 9

V and Ozymandias are intelligent men that employ ruthless means to accomplish noble ends and we are privy to their thought processes which generally is the POV of a super villain like Doctor Doom not a hero and this use of POV forces the reader to go beyond the simple structures of good and evil normally associated with comic books even comic books with antiheros.

Stream of Consciousness POV

Comic book writers did not employ stream of consciousness in early comic books.  The use of stream of consciousness is a narrative technique that is employed more and more in comic books in the present.  Alan Moore makes extreme use of an interior monologue in all of his comic books.  Rorschach’s internal monologue is used extensively in Watchmen.  However, Alan Moore pushes the comic book envelope of stream of consciousness in A Small Killing.

Alan Moore has used a stream of consciousness POV exclusively in A Small Killing and the narrative the use of images from the inner world of the protagonist.  There is very little action in A Small Killing and we follow the protagonist as he is haunted by a ghost like child that is presumably a hallucination of himself as a child.  However, there is a hint that the child might be an actual ghost rather than a hallucination (see Figure 29 below).

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Figure 29 – A Small Killing – Page 11

Incredibly I didn’t care about the nature of the child because the protagonist is an unlikeable whiner and I am sad that the “ghost” child did not succeed in killing the protagonist.  A slow read that is POV technique driven to the point that reading pleasure is sacrificed for art.  The favorite device for exploring stream of consciousness for Moore seems to be via the use of hallucinogens by the characters in his stories which is already discussed in detail in the prior section of this essay.

Story within a Story POV

Alan Moore often employs the metafictional device of a story within a story in order to give his narrative added depth and complexity.  In Watchmen, one of the children is reading a comic book about pirates called the Tales of the Black Freighter and the bleakness of the story makes the already “real” story of the Watchmen even more nihilistic and acts a plot juxtaposition device.

Miracleman was programmed in a reality that resembled a superhero comic book.  The adventures of the Miracleman family in this virtual reality can in turn be self contained stories.  There was a Marvelman comic book published in Great Britain in the fifties and from the perspective of the Moore series, those adventures took place in a virtual reality which explains the lack of “reality” in those adventures.  Miracleman is also a comic book fan and comic books are part of the narrative but this device was exploited more by other writers after Moore such as Neil Gaiman in Miracleman: Apocrypha.

Alan Moore’s Supreme has many metafictional layers but I will stick to the story within a story elements.  In the Supreme comic book, Moore’s Supreme has the secret identity of Ethan Crane who works Dazzle Comics on a character named Omniman that is being rebooted.  In reality, Supreme is a Superman character that is being rebooted by Alan Moore.  The comic book within a comic book is a parallel story! Eventually Supreme even has a fight with his own comic book creation in Supreme #53.  Supreme becomes a character in a comic book that fights Omniman (see Figure 30 below) but of course there is a “logical” explanation and a Szazs, a Mister Mxyzptlk,  clone, is the cause.

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Figure 30 – Supreme #53 – Page 6

In The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, Moore creates an entire universe made up of fictional characters from novels.  This is not exactly a story within a story device but is a metafictional device.  Basically Moore’s League invention is a pastiche of prior stories!

Conclusion

Alan Moore uses certain novel POV techniques with different characters in different comic book series in order to consistently make his stories more interesting.  There is a synergistic effect created by using so many POV techniques within a single narrative.  The combination of POV techniques causes the reader to feel transported to an unnerving and alien reality and upon reflection the cause of this feeling is hard to pin point but I would argue the POV techniques are a major cause.  POV drives plot in many instances.  How the character perceives reality not only explains the behavior of the character but often acts as the deus ex machina of an Alan Moore story.  The character must behave a certain way because of their perceptions.

Alan Moore uses caption boxes instead of thought bubbles to show the thoughts of the character.  This allows for lot more information to be expressed.  Alan Moore uses a lot of caption boxes relative to speech bubbles compared to other writers and this shows that POV is more important to Alan Moore than other writers.

Many of Alan Moore’s comic books have been made into movies including some discussed here (Watchmen, V is for Vendetta).  The art and text attempting to show the POV of Dr. Manhattan is one of the high points of this series that was not really explored in the movie and this lack of the comic book POV devices made the movie less interesting in many ways than the comic book series the film was derived from.

Harvey Comics vs. Disney

Introduction

What would happen if the heroes of the Harvey Comics universe meet their equivalents in the Disney universe?  That is the goal of this article.  Also, the Harvey Comic character deserves to meet the most famous equivalent character.

1) Archibald the Talking Wishing Well vs. Pinocchio

As I stated in Harvey Comics vs. DC article, I have a soft spot for objects with sentience and even wrote a book on the subject called Household Fables.  Archibald the Talking Wishing Well is a sentient magical object and deserves to fight another sentient magical object.  Hot Stuff’s trident is also sentient and capable of doing magic.

Disney is filled with objects that possess sentience.  The question is if they must masquerade i.e. hide true sentient and in many cases animate nature.  The following Disney films have sentient objects:  Aladdin (Magic Carpet), Beauty and the Beast (Lumière, Cogsworth, Mrs. Potts, The Wardrobe), Cars, Toy Story (Aliens, Baby Face, Barbie, Barrel of Monkeys, Big Baby, Bo Peep, Bookworm, Bullseye, Buttercup, Buzz Lightyear, Chatter Telephone, Chuckles, Chunk, Combat Carl, Cymbal-banging monkey, Dolly, Ducky, Etch, Evil Emperor Zurg, Hamm, Hand-in-the-Box, Hannah’s dolls, Hockey Puck, Jack-in-the-Box, Janie and Pterodactyl, Jessie, Jingle Joe, Ken, Legs, Lenny, Lots-O’-Huggin’ Bear, Mr. Mike, Mr. Potato Head, Mr. Pricklepants, Mr. Shark, Mr. Spell, Mrs. Potato Head, Peas-in-a-Pod, RC, Rex, Rock ‘Em Sock ‘Em Robots, Rockmobile, Rocky Gibraltar, Roller Bob, Roly Poly Clown, Sarge, Slinky Dog, Snake and Robot, Sparks, Stinky Pete the Prospector, Stretch, The Frog, Toddle Tots, Totoro, Tour Guide Barbie, Trixie, Troikas, Troll, Twitch, Utility Belt Buzz, Walking Car, Wheezy, and Woody), Fantasia (Mickey the Sorcerer’s Apprentice animates brooms), and The Sword in the Stone (Merlin’s furniture).

Still the all time classic story of an object coming to life not only in the Disney universe but in world literature has to be Pinocchio.  The book is a classic but how people visualize Pinocchio is totally from the Disney movie Pinocchio.

Pinocchio is desperately looking for magical allies throughout the multiverse to fight Geppetto, who had become evil.  Pinocchio visits Archibald the Talking Wishing Well for advise since Wishing Wells are kind of the gossip queens of their particular magical universe.  Listening to wishes all day long ends up being a lot of intel!  Archibald is very honest with Pinocchio and points out the inhabitants of the Harvey universe would make poor soldiers.  Later that night, Archibald wishes upon a star every night for hummanity or death until he is delivered from his condition by the Haunted Tank years later.

2) Baby Huey vs. Donald Duck

I deal with the subject of anthropomorphic animals in more detail at:

http://foxhugh.wordpress.com/2009/06/10/Disney-vs-marvel-funny-animals/

Disney is arguably the home of the most and greatest cartoon anthropomorphic animals.  However, the most famous duck of Duckburg and Disney is Donald Duck!  Donald Duck hasn’t had to deal with a baby for awhile but has extensive experience with children.  Donald has three nephews, Huey, Dewy and Louie, that he has had many adventures with them.  Baby Huey’s town Duckville borders Duckburg.  Baby Duck gets lost during a school field trip to Duckburg.  Donald Duck sees Baby Huey crying on a park bench and tries to comfort Baby Huey. Baby Huey gives Donald Duck a hug which knocks him out.  No one in Duckburg has this sort of strength and Donald gets Baby Huey a job as a body guard to Scrooge McDuck.

3) Casper vs. Blackbeard’s Ghost

Casper loves his new friend from the Marvel Universe, Homer the Ghost, but misses getting rides with his horse, Nightmare.  Casper is a novice at interdimensional travel which for a ghost involves changing the vibrational frequency of the ghost’s spectral body.  Casper ends up in the Disney universe not the DC Universe.  The Disney universe has many less ghosts than the Harvey universe.  Ghosts even have a town, Spooky Town, in the Harvey universe!  Casper is in a panic!  There are no ghosts in this new universe.  A bearded ghost comes towards Casper.

Blackbeard bellowed, drunkenly, “Avast ye matey!  I be Blackbeard.  I thought I had met all the ghosts in the great spectral vastness.”

“Sir, I think I am lost”, responded Casper.

“Hmmmm, I have been cursed to wander as an unquiet spirit until I perform a good deed and I think helping a lad like yourself would be a good deed indeed!”, responded Blackbeard.

Blackbeard actually knows less than Casper about how to use his ghostly powers.  Casper reflected that he had actually learned a lot from the Ghostly Trio.  Casper was polite and pretended to take Blackbeard’s advice but realized on his own was that if he reversed the vibrational process then he should return home and it worked.

4) Hot Stuff the Little Devil vs. Chernobog

Disney is the “G” rated part of the toon universe and not surprisingly stays away from the very touchy subject of devils and demons.  Chernobog is Disney’s most famous and arguably only demonic character.  Hot Stuff notices a disturbance in the very firmament of hell.  When he gets to near the disturbance, Hot Stuff finds himself thrown out of a volcano surrounded by other demons, ghosts and witches.  There is this eerie music playing in the background.  Hot Stuff is very scared.  The music stops and Chernobog returns all the beings he used like so much confetti, at a party, back to their respective realms.

5) Nightmare the Galloping Ghost (Casper’s horse) vs. Pegasus (horse of Hercules)

Horses are a constant part of the background of Disney cartoons but very few have names and include:  Achilles (The Hunchback of Notre Dame) Bullseye (Toy Story 2), Captain (One Hundred and One Dalmatians), Cyril Proudbottom (The Adventures of Ichabod and Mr.Toad) , Khan (Mulan), Maximus (Tangled), Pegasus (Hercules), Phillipe (Beauty and the Beast), Philip (The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe), Samson (Sleeping Beauty) and Sprout (The Parent Trap, 1998).  While many of the horses listed are brave, especially Achilles and Khan, only one has the power of flight like Nightmare and that is Pegasus.

Nightmare is distressed.  There was yet another Phantom Zone disturbance, Nightmare wishes Superman would fix that problem once and for all, and she is flying around a cartoon universe that is familiar yet unfamiliar.  Her love, Comet, is nowhere to be found. Pegasus has been the only horse in the skies forever.  Pegasus sees Nightmare and says hello in horsey (neeigh).   The two play hide and seek in the clouds.  Nightmare is not as smart as Comet but smarter than Pegasus and soon becomes bored.  Pegasus does not even have rudimentary telepathy and zero language skills beyond a whinny.  When a rift to the DC universe opens, Nightmare is gone.

6) Richie Rich vs. Scrooge McDuck

Cai Shen, the Chinese God of Wealth, will give a silver version of his golden rod.  The golden rod turns iron into gold.  The silver rod turns iron into silver.  The silver rod will be given to a person of great wealth that is worthy.  Cai Shen visits Richie Rich in the Harvey universe in the guise of a beggar.  Richie Rich is the wealthiest being of the Harvey Universe and thus warrants a visit by Cai Shen.  Richie Rich showers the beggar with attention and food.  Cai Shen is impressed until he is taken to the mansion of Richie Rich.

“There is too much conspicuous consumption.  A tree fort made of money is an unworthy act”, reflects Cai Shen.  Cai Shen thanks Richie and quietly slips away.

Cai Shen then visits the Disney universe and attempts the same beggar ploy on Scrooge McDuck looks at the shoes of Cai Shen and realizes the shoes are incredibly expensive and at oods with the overall dress and appearance of the beggar.

“It’s the old eccentric millionaire pretending to be a beggar scam”, thinks Scrooge McDuck.  Scrooge McDuck has pretended to be a beggar himself once or twice over the years.  Scrooge McDuck plays the game perfectly.  Cai Shen is fed and feted and all displays of conspicuous consumption are wisely avoided.  Cai Shen transforms into his real form.  Scrooge McDuck immediately recognizes Cai Shen.  Scrooge McDuck is an avid collector of Chinese antiques.

“Oh boy, oh boy, oh boy, this is the big time”, thinks Scrooge McDuck.

Cai Shen gives Scrooge McDuck the silver rod.  Within a week Scrooge McDuck has accidentally turned Donald Duck into silver while trying to extend the powers of the silver rod by combining them with the good luck power of his number one dime and has no idea how to undo the spell or how to contact Cai Shen.  Huey, Dewey and Louie find a Chinese spell book and read the counter spell, they go to a fine boarding school in Australia.  Uncle Scrooge and Donald Duck’s nephews will have to go on a quest to find the ingredients for the counter spell.  This was the plan by Cai Shen to teach Scrooge McDuck humility from the beginning!

7) Sad Sack vs. Sarge, Commander of the Green Army Men

I have written about comic book war heroes before at:

http://foxhugh.wordpress.com/2009/03/21/Disney-vs-marvel-war-heroes/

Disney is filled with mythic warriors like Hercules and Mulan but stays away from the drab, bloody, muddy, all too real, terrible wars of the Twentieth Century.  However, there is one commanding officer that would feel at home in the modern battle field and that is Sarge who has the honor of commanding the Green Army Men of Toy Story.  Sad Sack has escaped the endless jokes of Sgt. Fury in the Marvel universe and finds himself in the Toy Story universe.  Sad Sack feels at home for the first time in his life.  The endless drills of the Green Army Men against a none existent army are strangely soothing.  Sad Sack saw real war in the DC and Marvel universes and likes the fake war of the Disney part of the multiverse.  Sarge likes Sad Sack and soon promotes him to the rank of corporal.

8) Stumbo the Giant vs. Willie the Giant

What giants at Disney would be a good match for Stumbo?  Hercules, the movie, has quite a few titans who are large and of giant proportions but far more powerful than any giant.  Gustav the Giant is a Stumbo type giant but was a one-shot in a Disney short with Mickey as a tailor here, but Gustav was not very memorable mostly because the cartoon he was in was not very good. Mickey was the hero against a second giant in Willie the Giant in Mickey and the Beanstalk.  Willie made further appearances in Mickey’s Christmas Carol, Who Framed Roger Rabbit, Mickey Mouse Clubhouse, Disney Parks, and Once Upon a Time.  Stumbo buys some beans from a shady visitor to Tiny Town.  The beans sprout and Stumbo quickly climbs the bean stalk to the palace of Willie the Giant.

Willie is not just a giant but has any number of magical powers including flight, invisibility, and metamorphosis.  Stumbo is probably smarter than Willie but only marginally.  Willie is quite sure Stumbo is in his palace to steal his magic harp and deals with Stumbo decisively and brutally.  Stumbo’s limp body is thrown from the sky to the earth but Stumbo does not die since no one dies in this type of Disney cartoon or any Harvey cartoon.

9) Wendy the Good Little Witch vs. Witch (Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs)

Witches in the Disney universe include: Circe (Hercules) , Maleficent (Sleeping Beauty), Martha Wentworth ( The Sword in the Stone), The Witch (Brave), White Witch (The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe), Miss Eglantine Price, The Sanderson Sisters, and Witch Hazel.  However, when you think Disney witches the classic is the Queen turned witch in Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.  Perhaps it’s the transformation from a great beauty to a terrible hag is what titillates our imagination.

The witch offers Wendy a poisoned apple.  Wendy would never eat an apple from a with in her universe but in her universe witches have a green complexion.   Wendy figures the person in front of her is just and old lady.  Wendy eats the apple and dies.

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Harvey Comics vs. Marvel Comics

Harvey Comics vs. Marvel Comics

Introduction

What would happen if the heroes of the Harvey Comics universe meet their equivalents in the Marvel universe?  That is the goal of this article.  The challenge is finding the Harvey Comic equivalent character in the very different Marvel universe.  Also, the Harvey Comic character deserves to meet the most famous equivalent character.  Marvel characters that had their own title are considered more important than characters that did not have their own title.  If more than one character type had their own title then the character that had more impact on the history of the Marvel universe is picked as the “adversary” for the Harvey character.

1) Archibald the Talking Wishing Well vs. Cosmic Cube

As I stated in Harvey Comics vs. DC, I have a soft spot for objects with sentience and even wrote a book on the subject called Household Fables.  Archibald the Talking Wishing Well is a sentient magical object and deserves to fight another sentient magical object.  Hot Stuff’s trident is also sentient and capable of doing magic.

The following Marvel inanimate objects possess sentience: Cosmic Cube, Krimonn the Power Prism, Resurrection Stone, the Bottle Imp, and the Sword in the Star.  The cosmic cube is one of the most important objects in the Marvel universe and far, far, far more important than the other objects listed.  The Cosmic Cube evolves to sentience and becomes Kubik.  Kubik travels to the Harvey universe and is quite amused.  Kubik wanders the enchanted forest and comes upon Archibald the Talking Wishing Well.  The two actually have a lot in common.  Both provide wishes.  Kubik can provide wishes on a global scale and Archibald can only create objects and not even change events.  Kubik decides to grant Archibald a wish!  Archibald asks to be human for a day.

Kubik and Archibald travel to Spooky Town and scare the ghosts.  They wander to Deviland and get a lava bath, courtesy of invulnerability provided by Kubik.   Kubik and Archibald watch the none stop fights between ogres in Ogreville.  Goblin Gulch is more a forest than a town and there isn’t much to see so they leave quickly.  Archibald visits Wendy at Witch Way.  Archibald starts to turn back into a wishing well.  Kubik says goodbye and leaves Archibald where he found him.  Being human makes Archibald reflect on how horrible his existence really is.  A strange carriage made of metal with a cannon attached to the top clanks towards Archibald.

2) Baby Huey vs. Howard the Duck

The anthropomorphic animals of Marvel include Howard the Duck, Spider Ham, Super Rabbit and Top Dog. Spider Ham is a parody of Spider-Man.  I deal with this subject in more detail at:

http://foxhugh.wordpress.com/2009/06/10/dc-vs-marvel-funny-animals/

Baby Huey is an anthropomorphic duck.  Howard the Duck is Marvel’s foremost anthropomorphic duck well their only anthropomorphic duck unless you count the inhabitants of Howard’s world who are of the same species.  Thog the Overmaster had previously kidnapped Howard the Duck from his own dimension and brought to the Marvel human dimension.  Thog the Overmaster is not pleased at all the success Howard the Duck has had and is jealous of Howard’s relationship since Thog has never been able to attract hot chicks.  Thog decides the ultimate torture is to dump Howard into a dimension of sentient ducks that are basically idiots.  Howard is dumped in Duckville were he meets Baby Huey.  Howard shares his cynical existential philosophy with the inhabitants of Duckville and one by one they commit suicide until Howard is alone, so very alone….

3) Casper vs. Homer the Happy Ghost

Marvel only has two real ongoing ghostcharacters: Dead Girl, Homer the Happy Ghost.  There is a bad guy named Ghost that can turn himself and objects invisible or intangible but he does this trick with a battle suit and is basically a techy rather than supernatural being.  Homer the Happy Ghost on the other hand was created by Marvel, then Atlas, in direct response to Casper.  Homer actually lasted 22 issues in the fifties and there was an attempt to revive the character in the seventies.  The second run only lasted 4 issues.

Homer is basically Casper with an ectoplasmic cow lick.  Homer even has a ghost buddy with a derby just like Spooky, Casper’s friend, called Dugan.  Zelda was the Homer good little witch version of Wendy.  Homer was happy not friendly like Casper.  The Homer universe did include Melvin the mixed up ghost, a total idiot, and perhaps Melvin was supposed to give Homer the pathos that the Ghostly Trio provided in the Casper stories.  Homer escapes from Marvel comic book limbo and ends up in Harvey comic book limbo.  Casper and Homer become best of friends and have a happy relationship.  Casper remembers his horse Nightmare that disappeared now and then but Homer soon causes him to forget about Nightmare.

4) Hot Stuff the Little Devil vs. Daimon Hellstrom

Hot Stuff is called a devil but does not go around tempting weak mortals but generally causing the primitive chaotic havoc one associates with demons in Dungeons and Dragons. This is important when dealing with the Marvel universe since this universe does differentiate between demons and devils unlike the DC universe but is not as consistent as Dungeons and Dragons.  Actually I think the naming system of Dungeons and Dragons was copied by Marvel minus any of the logic used by Dungeons and Dragons!  Take that Marvel!  The following list includes all devils and demons in the Marvel universe combined: Abraxas (comics), Adversary (comics), Allatou, Amatsu-Mikaboshi (comics), Asmodeus (Marvel Comics), Azazel (Marvel Comics), Baphomet (comics), Belasco (comics), Blackheart, Blackout (comics), Crimson King, Dagoth, Daimon Hellstrom, Damballah (comics), Demogoblin, Dragon of the Moon, Dragoom, Dreamqueen, Gargoyle (comics), Ghost Rider (Danny Ketch)      , Ghost Rider (Johnny Blaze), Glob (comics), Golem (comics), Haazareth Three, Helleyes, Hood (comics), Ikthalon, Inferno (demon), Kazann, KhLΘG, Kirigi, Lilith (Marvel Comics), Ludi (comics), Magik (comics), Marduk Kurios, Mephisto (comics), Nameless One (Marvel Comics), N’astirh, N’Garai, Ningal (comics), Null (comics), Olivier (comics), Randall Flagg, Roxanne Simpson, Satana (Marvel Comics), Satannish, Saturnine (comics), Seth (Marvel Comics), Shuma-Gorath, Six-Fingered Hand (comics), Skinner (comics), Sligguth, Spider-X, Stone (Marvel Comics), Suma-ket, Surtur (Marvel Comics), S’ym, Thog, Trauma (comics), Undying Ones, Vengeance (comics), Visimajoris, Y’Garon, Zarathos, and Zom

Only two demons/devils have graduated to their own title in the Marvel universe: Ghost Rider and Daimon Hellstrom.  The problem is that Ghost Rider doesn’t look very devil like and looks like, well, Ghost Rider.  Daimon Hellstrom even has a trident like Hot Stuff!  Hot Stuff has run away from Etrigan the Demon in the DC universe and gotten lost.  Hot Stuff meets Daimon Hellstrom in the Marvel section of hell which is actually a lot nicer than the DC section of hell.  Daimon is the son of Satannish and should be pretty evil due to his heritage but actually is a softy that is always helping the good guys.  Hot Stuff is crying and his asbestos diaper is soiled.Hellstrom teleports the poor child back to Deviland.

5) Nightmare the Galloping Ghost (Casper’s horse) vs. Dreamstalker

There are quite a few flying horses in the Marvel universe that can fly into the skies and battle Nightmare including: Aragorn, Brightwind, Dreamstalker, Sleipnir, Strider, Valinor.  However, only one horse has a “dream” theme and that is Dreamstalker the steed of Nightmare who in the Marvel universe is the ruler of the dimension of nightmares.   Nightmare has a terrible dream, which is kind or ironic if you think about it, in this nightmare, Nightmare runs into Dreamstalker.  Dreamstalker turns into what Nightmare wants more than anything else and that’s Comet the Super-Horse.  When Nightmare awakes, she is in the mood to wake up Comet who is sleeping next to her.

6) Richie Rich vs. Tony Stark

Royal Roy was a blatant rip off of Richie Rich published by Marvel under their Star Comics imprint and was sued by Harvey Comics for copyright infringement.  Royal Roy and later the entire Star imprint failed in the market place and were cancelled and the lawsuit was cancelled.  Royal Roy passes the type test but is a very obscure Marvel character.  Tony Stark is the alter ego of Iron Man and is a billionaire industrialist in his own right.  Tony Stark pays the bills of the Avengers including their mansion.  Tony Stark is also an alcoholic who has struggled with the demon in the bottle on and off during his career.  Tony Stark is just a lot more interesting than Royal Roy.

Tony is attending a party at the mansion of Richie Rich.  Tony is on his 20th martini.  Tony sees Richie and gives him a long lecture about how with great power comes great responsibility and ditto for great wealth.  Richie doesn’t really understand what Tony is going on about but is upset and Richie starts to cry for the first time in his life.  Tony is escorted of the grounds of the mansion.  The next morning, Tony feels about as guilty as he ever has.

7) Sad Sack vs. Sgt. Fury

I have written about comic book war heroes before at:

http://foxhugh.wordpress.com/2009/03/21/dc-vs-marvel-war-heroes/

Marvel war heroes include Sgt. Fury and the Howling Commandos, Captain Savage and his Leathernecks, the characters in the The ‘Nam series, and the Phantom Eagle.  Sgt. Fury is by far the alpha male of the Marvel war heroes.  Sad Sack did not actually get killed by a sniper when part of Sgt. Rock’s Easy Company but just played possum.  Sad Sack is unlike a Marvel toon and is kind of made out of some sort of indestructible rubber and even that description doesn’t really work.  If anything Sad Sack is tougher than any sort of rubber and kind of invulnerable.

Sad Sack has never been in combat before and is in the midst of a total nervous breakdown when he runs into Sgt. Fury.  Sgt. Fury has a sense of humor, unlike Sgt. Rock and just finds Sad Sack hilarious!  Sad Sack finds himself the butt of any number of pranks by the Howling Commandos but it’s all good natured fun, well until someone gets hurt but luckily Sad Sack is the sort of toon who can recover from just about any injury.

8) Stumbo the Giant vs. Henry Pym (Giant-Man)

Giants of myth are a big part of the Marvel landscape compared with the DC universe and include: Frost Giants of Jotunheim (Fafner II, Fasolt, Laufey, Utgard-Loki), Ice Giants of Jotunheim (Ymir), Mountain Giants of Jotunheim (Knorda), Rime Giants of Jotunheim (Bergelmir , Glump , Kai-Ra), Storm Giants of Jotunheim (Brimer, Ghan , Grondar, Hrungnir, Kagger, Nedra, Ogre, Skagg, Skoll), and Giants of Olympus (Agrius , Alcyoneus , Callias, Enceladus, Eurymedon, Eurytus, Gration, Mimas, Pallas, Polybotes, Porphyrion, Zeno).  However, none of these mythic giants has ever gotten his/her own title and on the whole are pretty interchangeable!  Mostly the giants of myth in Marvel provide hammer and mace fodder for Thor and Hercules and have zero characterization.  Ymir is probably most important of these giants.  Loki is technically a half-giant but is of normal size and would not be a good match against Stumbo is a real giant.

Henry Pym as Giant-Man on the other hand has been on the front cover of over a dozen issues of Tales to Astonish and shared the comic book with the Hulk.  Giant-Man was also a regular on the cover of the Avengers.  When you think giants in Marvel, you think Giant-Man!  Heck his name has giant in it!  Giant-Man stumbles into Tiny Town while searching for Ultron across the multiverse.  Giant-Man realizes that Stumbo has some sort of mental deficiency and talks to him in a very slow, steady voice that calms Stumbo greatly.  Giant-Man’s Ultron detector finds the dimension Ultron is hiding in.  Giant-Man teleports to that dimension.  Giant-Man and Stumbo part on good terms.

9) Wendy the Good Little Witch vs. Scarlet Witch

Marvel has many witches including:  Amanda Sefton, Agatha Harkness, Arcanna, Black Widow (Claire Voyant), Calypso (comics), Clea, Crimson Curse, Jaine Cutter, Enchantress (Marvel Comics), Jennifer Kale,Karnilla, Morgan le Fay (Marvel Comics), Lilith (Marvel Comics), Lorelei (Asgardian), Magik (comics), Nico Minoru, Pixie (X-Men), Satana (Marvel Comics), Scarlet Witch, Selene (comics), Spiral (comics), Margali Szardos, Talisman (comics), Topaz (Marvel Comics), Umar (Marvel Comics), and Witchfire (Marvel Comics).

However, only the Scarlet Witch has had her own series.  The Scarlet Witch was also ranked 97th in Wizard‘s “200 Greatest Comic Book Characters of All Time” list.  Wendy has left Zatanna with her make over (Harvey Comics vs. DC Comics).  Wendy loves how she looks but wonders if she can get more make up tips from other sexy witches in other dimensions.  Wendy spies the Scarlet Witch with her crystal ball and decides she loves what she has done with red, Wendy’s favorite color. Wendy arrives in front of the Scarlett Witch.  The Scarlet Witch begins combing Wendy’s hair.  Wendy doesn’t mind having her hair combed and has Casper do that all the time well until Homer started hanging around.  Homer doesn’t make Wendy happy at all.  Then the Scarlet Witch starts calling her “daughter”.  Ok, Wendy can even accept the daughter stuff.  However, the Scarlett Witch goes through her gigantic closet and tosses out outfits left and right like so much garbage.

Finally, the Scarlett Witch yells, “No more wooden hangers ever!”

Wendy decides the Scarlett With is nuts or as they say in Witchland, one straw short of flying broom, and quickly teleports out of the Marvel universe.

Harvey Comics vs. DC Comics

Introduction

What would happen if the heroes of the Harvey Comics universe meet their equivalents in the DC universe?  That is the goal of this article.  The challenge is finding the Harvey Comic equivalent character in the very different DC universe.  Also, the Harvey Comic character deserves to meet the most famous equivalent character.  DC characters that had their own title are considered more important than characters that did not have their own title.  If more than one character type had their own title then the character that had more impact on the history of the DC universe is picked as the “adversary” for the Harvey character.

1) Archibald the Talking Wishing Well vs. Haunted Tank

Archibald the Talking Wishing Wellis a very, very minor character in the Harvey universe but I have a soft spot for sentient objects.  I even wrote a book on the subject called Household Fables.  Archibald the Talking Wishing Well is a supporting character in the Casper universe.  Hot Stuff’s trident is also sentient and capable of doing magic.  Unfortunately while the Casper universe is overrun with, one-shot, sentient objects this is really not something that is done in the DC universe.  However, there is the Haunted Tank which is a tank haunted by the ghost of Robert E. Lee and this is pretty much the foremost sentient object in the DC Universe and actually almost the only sentient object in the DC universe that is not a one-shot.

The Haunted Tank gets lost in a back story of Tales of the Unexpected, just before Lee’s fight with the other ghost Captain Fear, and finds himself in the Casper universe.  Archibald asks the Haunted Tank if he wants a wish.  Robert E. Lee wants his body back!  One can assume that Archibald can see and hear ghosts since Archibald communicates with Casper.  Archibald gives the transformation a try but just doesn’t have the juice for such a giant magical spell.  Lee starts to wheel himself back home but Archibald yells “stop”.

Archibald has been a sentient magical well for thousands of years and is sick of his existence.  Archibald gives and gives and sometimes doesn’t even get a thank you.  Archibald realizes that the Haunted Tank is the only being he has ever met in the Casper universe that has the guts to do what has to be down.  Archibald tells the Haunted Tank in piteous voice, “Please kill me!”  Lee understands the pain of the wishing well since he has been trapped in a similar manner.  Lee realizes that Archibald’s plight is far worse since it’s been his lot for thousands of years not just a little over a hundred.  At least the Haunted Tank has mobility and adventures.  Lee slowly lowers the turret of the Haunted Tank and blows the well to bits.

2) Baby Huey vs. Rubberduck

I have written about anthropomorphic animals before at:

http://foxhugh.wordpress.com/2009/06/10/dc-vs-marvel-funny-animals/

The anthropomorphic animals of DC include Alley-Kat-Abra, American Eagle, Bulldog Drumhead , Captain Carrot , Captain Carrot and the Zoo Crew, Dodo and the Frog, Doodles Duck, Fastback, Flippity & Flop, J. Rufus Lion, Little Cheese, McSnurtle the Turtle, Nutsy Squirrel, Peter Panda, Peter Porkchops, Pig-Iron, Racoon Kids, Rubberduck, Tito and his Burrito , Three Mouseketeers, and Yankee Poodle

Baby Huey deserves to fight another anthropomorphic duck.  The foremost and actually only anthropomorphic duck of the DC universe is Rubberduck.  Rubberduck is a supporting character of a second tier title, Captain Carrot and the Amazing Zoo Crew.  Rubberduck was trying to visit Superman with his interdimensional vehicle but ended up in the Harvey universe instead.

Baby Huey thinks Rubberduck is so cute and tries to give him a big sloppy kiss.  Rubberduck mistakes this attempt at affection for an attack.  Baby Huey effectively has super strength and has been known to toss cars around.  Rubberduck can stretch his body like Mr. Fantastic or the Elongated Man.  Rubberduck wraps his body around Baby Huey and starts the big squeeze.  Baby Huey almost passes out but with one gigantic push of his arms manages to snap out of Rubberduck’s grip.  Baby Huey then whirls Rubberduck around and around by his legs and finally lets him go.  Rubberduck falls into a convenient lake unconscious.  Baby Huey jumps into the lake but remembers that he can’t swim.  Rubberduck drowns.  Baby Huey cries and cries until Papa Duck calms him down.

3) Casper vs. Spectre

DC doesn’t have that many ongoing ghost characters.  Ghosts in DC include: Dark Angel, Dead Boy Detectives, Deadman, Gentleman  Ghost, Haunted Tank, and the Spectre .  The Dead Boy Detectives, Deadman, Haunted Tank and the Spectre have all had their own title.  However, the Spectre has been around since the Golden Age and is generally considered the archetype of the ghostly superhero that abounded in the Golden Age.

Casper hears the meowing of the Phantom Zone Cats and follows the meowing to the Phantom Zone.  Casper is surrounded by evil Kryptonians that have been sentenced to the Phantom Zone.  The Kryptonians are mean and scary, far scarier than the Ghostly Trio, and Casper begins to cry.  The Spectre hears the crying of the ghost child and takes him by the hand and leads Casper back to his own universe.

4) Hot Stuff the Little Devil vs. Etrigan the Demon

The following is a list of demons in the DC universe:  Anton Arcane, Asmodel, Azazel (DC Comics), Belyllioth, Blaze and Satanus, Blue Devil, Chantinelle, Demons Three, Dreamslayer,Etrigan the Demon, First of the Fallen, Great Evil Beast, Heggra, Jeannette (comics), Lucifer (DC Comics), Mazikeen (comics), Mnemoth, Nebiros, Nekron, Neron, Onimar Synn, Raven (comics), Sabbac, Trigon (comics) and Yuga Khan.  Hot Stuff is technically a devil not a demon but these terms are interchangeable in the DC and Harvey universes unlike the Marvel and more especially the Dungeon and Dragon universe.  Hot Stuff should meet DC’s foremost demon since DC appears to avoid the appellation of devil, probably for religious reasons.

Only the Blue Devil, Etrigan the Demon and Lucifer had their own titles at one time or another.  The Blue Devil is an odd little second or even third tier character that is currently in comic book limbo.  Lucifer is one of the most powerful characters in the DC universe and could probably wipe out the entire Harvey universe without much trouble.  Poor Hot Stuff would be hopelessly over matched in a contest against Lucifer.  Therefore, Etrigan the Demon emerges as the champion of the DC universe.

Hot Stuff wanders away from Deviltown and encounters a section of hell he has never seen before.  Etrigan is considered one of the more powerful demons even in the much darker recesses of hell.  Etrigan is probably stronger than any demon in Deviltown.  Hot Stuff is a baby that wears asbestos diapers.  Hot Stuff takes one look at Etrigran and runs back to Deviltown.

5) Nightmare the Galloping Ghost (Casper’s horse) vs. Comet the Super-Horse

There are not a lot of important horses in the DC universe.  Bat Lash has a horse named DaisyVictory and Vanguard are flying horses used by the Shining Knight.  Comet the Super-Horse is Supergirl’s horse and the most famous DC horse and just about the only DC horse even hard core DC fans can name.  Comet was once a human but was turned into a horse and then a super-horse by Circe.  Circe is generally a bad witch but will do good deeds if a good looking blonde hunk is involved.  Comet has all the super powers of Superman and Supergirl but none of their weaknesses.  Comet is immune to Kryptonite and does not lose his powers under a red sun due to the magical rather than Kryptonian origin of his super powers.  A horse is stronger than a man and a super horse is stronger than Superman.  Superman alone can defeat Supergirl but Supergirl astride Comet can defeat Superman.  Super-Girl with Comet beating on Superman is more or less a story line in more than one Silver Age Superman family issue.  Krypto managed to survive the destruction of the Silver Age continuity by DC during the Crisis on Infinite Earthsbut Comet and all the other super pets  that included Streaky the Supercat and Beppo the Supermonkey did not so this adventure takes place in the Silver Age exclusively.  When is HeroClix going to create a Supergirl plus Comet miniature using their Brave and Bold combined hero system?

Casper has disappeared and Nightmare follows his astral trail to the Phantom Zone.  The Phantom Zone Cats telepathically tell that Casper was in the Phantom Zone but was led back home by the Spectre.  You can see the DC Earth easily from the Phantom Zone and Nightmare sees Comet.  Nightmare’s heart beats like her heart has never beat before.

Nightmare thinks, “That’s one fine stud!”

Nightmare descends from the Phantom Zone to the DC Earth and offers her haunches to Comet.  The two can communicate telepathically.  Comet once was a human but has been a horse for a very, very long time.  Normal horses are not as intelligent as Nightmare and break easily.  Nightmare’s fluffy mane is like nothing Comet has ever seen before.  Nightmare’s Disney style eyes give her an exotic look that Comet finds irresistible.

Nightmare and Comet begin a torrid love affair.  Will Nightmare ever return to Casper?  Will Casper care?  Will Supergirl become jealous of Nightmare?  Will Superman become jealous of Nightmare?  What will Lois Lane do?  What convoluted plan will Lex Luthor come up with in order to use Nightmare to destroy Superman?  How will the editors at DC transform Jimmy Olsen into a male version of Nightmare?  Will there be a Nightmare/Ace the Bat-Hound team up against a Comet/Krypto team up?  Stay tuned for another day in the lives of the Silver Age, Super Family.

6) Richie Rich vs. The Green Team: Boy Millionaires

The Green Team is a team of rich kid adventurers.  The entry fee for the club is a million dollars.  The Green Team hates Richie Rich!  They are millionaires while Richie Rich uses millions of dollars to make common place objects.  Richie Rich has slept on a sleeping bag of hundred dollar bills (Richie Rich Dollars and Cents #11).  Richie Rich exercises with a jumping rope made out of precious jewels (Richie Rich Dollars and Cents #23).  Richie Rich made a bridge of dollar bills (Richie Rich Dollars and Cents #30).  The list goes on and on.  The Green Team is in DC comic book limbo and in this state have metafictional awareness.  The Green Team is aware that they are a poor copy of Richie Rich.  They tried to bribe Animal Man (Animal Man #25) into getting them out of comic book limbo but failed.  If the Green Team ever escapes comic book limbo then Green Team plans to buy DC Comics and get Richie Rich to join their team as a butler that works for them!  Of course if they get out then their metafictional awareness will disappear.  The Green Team is aware of this and have tattooed directions on their bodies as to what to do in case they ever escape DC comic book limbo.  Where Harvey comic book characters go when their title and even their comic book company is gone is unknown.  Oh they end up on my blog!

7) Sad Sack vs. Sgt. Rock

I have written about comic book war heroes before at:

http://foxhugh.wordpress.com/2009/03/21/dc-vs-marvel-war-heroes/

The DC heroes include Blackhawk, Boy Commandos, Captain Storm, Creature Commandos, Enemy Ace, G.I. Robot, Gunner & Sarge, Haunted Tank, Hunter’s Hellcats, Johnny Cloud, the Losers, Mademoiselle Marie, Red, White and Blue and Sgt. Rock of Easy Company. Sad Sack is sadly assigned to Easy Company and has Sgt. Rock has his NCO.  Sgt. Rock takes one look at Sad Sack and knows what he has to do.  Sad Sack is put on point and taken out by a German sniper shortly afterwards.  Even two days later, no one in Easy Company even remembers Sad Sack.

8) Stumbo the Giant vs. Colossal Boy

Stumbo is a giant and logically should fight the foremost giant of the DC universe which is Colossal Boy.  Colossal Boy wanders through a dimensional rift and finds himself in Tiny Town, the home of Stumbo.  Stumbo has once against accidentally destroyed a house in Tiny Town.  Colossal Boy surveys the destruction and decided Stumbo is some sort of evil giant that likes to destroy houses of those smaller for fun.  Colossal Boy grows to the size of Stumbo and loses some self control because at that size his intellectual capacity is diminished.  Diminished capacity or not, Colossal Boy has had extensive Legion martial arts training plus years of fighting experience.  Stumbo almost never fights enemies and mostly has accidents in Tiny Town.  Colossal Boy starts the fight with quick Karate chop to the jugular followed by a Judo throw.  Once down, Colossal Boy get Stumbo in a neck choke and chokes him out.  The small natives start throwing rocks at Colossal Boy and he is confused.  Fortunately, Braniac 5 has found Colossal Boy and uses an interdimensional transporter ray to bring Colossal Boy back to the DC universe.

9) Wendy the Good Little Witch vs. Zatanna

Wendy deserves to fight the foremost witch of the DC universe.  There are a ton of witch choices in the DC Universe including: Alley-Kat-Abra, Amethyst, Princess of Gemworld, Circe (comics) , Dark Angel (DC Comics), La Encantadora, Enchantress (DC Comics), Glorith, Jinx (DC Comics), The Mad Mod Witch, Madame Xanadu, Madame Zodiac, Manitou Dawn, Lyta Milton, Morgaine le Fey (DC Comics), Queen of Fables, Raven (comics), Satan Girl, Silver Sorceress,Tala (comics), Titania (DC Comics), Traci Thirteen, Warlock’s Daughter, White Witch (comics), Witchfire (DC Comics), Yellow Peri, Zatanna, and Zealot (Wildstorm).

Only Madame Xanadu and Zatanna have had their own series.  Zatanna has been an important member of the Justice League of America.  Zatanna even appeared in the Superboy TV show Smallville!  Zatanna is also famous for her costume and especially her fish net stockings.  Zatanna wins the DC witch wars.

Wendy accidentally creates an interdimensional portal that takes her to the DC universe.  Wendy is flying around Gotham City with her broom and literally runs into Zatanna.  Wendy is used to ugly adult witches with green skin warts and ugly purple robes.  Wendy can magically sense that Zatanna is a witch like she is but the sort of witch she wants to be when she grows up.

Wendy, “You are beautiful”.

Zatanna responds in a maternal voice, “You are pretty cute yourself kid but do you mind if I give you some fashion advice?”

Wendy, “Please, please, please!”

Zatanna uses her magic to give Wendy a makeover.

Wendy is overjoyed.  Zatanna helps Wendy get home and promises to visit her someday.  Casper meets the new Wendy and feels a strange sickly sweet nausea that disturbs him to his astral core.  Suddenly Casper doesn’t feel so friendly towards anyone that looks at Wendy.  Casper has been lonely ever since Nightmare disappeared but this new Wendy more than makes up for the disappearance of Nightmare.

Mutants make better lovers!

Marvel Girl, Phoenix, Jean Grey-Summers, Polaris, Shadowcat, Kitty Pryde, Rogue, Anna Marie Wagner, Psylocke, Dazzler, Alison Blaire, Jubilee, Jubilation, Marrow, White Queen, Emma Frost, X-men, Mutants, Better lovers, lovers, X-Men Women

DC Heroes Transformed! Part II Transformations Organized by Type

Part I looked at DC Transformations broken down by Superheroes.  This is part II and will look at transformations broken down by type of transformation.

Alien Transformations

Alien Transformations, Alien Collage Key, Action Comics #239, Adventure #270, Aquaman #16, Batman #140, Blackhawk #177, Alien Blackhawk, Detective Comics #251, Jimmy Olsen #32

Alien Collage Key

Action Comics #239, Adventure Comics #270, Aquaman #16, Batman #140, Blackhawk #177 (Alien Blackhawk), Detective Comics #251, Jimmy Olsen #32

Animal Transformations

Animal Transformations, Animal Collage Key, Action Comics #243, Lion Headed Superman, Action Comics #296, Ant Superman, Action Comics #303, Kryptonian Monster, Action Comics #284, Mermaid Supergirl, Adventure #330, Gorilla Braniac 5, Black Hawk #205, Dinosaur, Gorilla, Jimmy Olsen #66, Cat Headed Lois Lane, Lois Lane #13, Lois Lane #92, Lois Lane Centaur, Supergirl #8, Medusa Hair, Superman #139

Animal Collage Key

Action Comics #243 (Lion Headed Superman), Action Comics #296 (Ant Superman), Action Comics #303 (Kryptonian Monster), Adventure Comics #330 (Gorilla Braniac 5), Black Hawk #205 (Dinosaur, Gorilla), Jimmy Olsen #66 (Cat Headed Lois Lane), Lois Lane #13 (Cat Headed Lois Lane), Lois Lane #92 (Lois Lane Centaur), Supergirl #8 (Medusa Hair), Superman #165 (Lion Headed Superman)

Baby Transformations

Baby Transformations, Baby Collage Key, Action #284, Baby Superman, Adventure #317, Baby Legions of Superheroes, Batman #147, Baby Batman, Jimmy Olsen #66, Baby Perry White, Lois Lane #10, Baby Lois Lane, Adventure Comics #356

Baby Collage Key

Action Comics #284 (Baby Superman), Adventure Comics #317 (Baby Legions of Superheroes), Batman #147 (Baby Batman), Jimmy Olsen #66 (Baby Perry White), Lois Lane #10 (Baby Lois Lane)

Caveman Transformations

Caveman Transformations, Caveman Collage Key, Action #169, Clark Kent, Caveman, Blackhawk #205, Superman #171, Superman Caveman, World’s Finest #138, Caveman Batman, Caveman Robin, Caveman Superman, World’s Finest #151, Superman Caveman,

Caveman Collage Key

Action Comics #169 (Clark Kent, Caveman, Blackhawk #205, Superman #171 (Superman Caveman), World’s Finest #138 (Caveman Batman, Robin & Superman), World’s Finest #151 (Superman Caveman)

Devil Transformations

Devil Transformations, Devil Collage Key, Action #324, Devil Supergirl, Jimmy Olsen #68, Devil Superman, Jimmy Olsen #81

Devil Collage Key

Action Comics #324 (Devil Supergirl), Jimmy Olsen #68 (Devil Superman), Jimmy Olsen #81 (Devil Superman)    

Doppelganger Transformations

Doppelganger Transformations, Doppelganger Collage Key, Action Comics #312, King Superman, Adventure #255, Action Comics #341, Wonder Woman #62, Triplet, Wonder Woman #90, Giant Double, Wonder Woman #98, Wonder Woman #102, Wonder Woman #111

Doppelganger Collage Key

Action Comics #312 (Clark Kent vs. King Superman), Adventure Comics #255, Wonder Woman #62 (Triplet), Wonder Woman #90 (Giant Double), Wonder Woman #98, Wonder Woman #102 (Triplet), Wonder Woman#111. Action Comics #341 doesn’t really belong in the collage since the Clark Kent is a Phantom Zone imposter but the decision to include was done for visual aesthetic reasons.

Element Transformation

Element Transformation, Element Transformations Collage Key, Blackhawk #182, Stone Blackhawks, Detective Comics #294, Calcium Batman, Detective Comics #302, Bronze Batman

Element Transformations Collage Key

Blackhawk #182 (Stone Blackhawks), Detective Comics #294 (Calcium Batman), Detective Comics #302 (Bronze Batman)

Fat Transformations

Fat Transformations, Fat Collage Key, Action Comics #383, Fat Supergirl, Adventure #298, Fat Lang Lang, Fat Superboy, Adventure #330, Fat Superboy, Adventure #345, Fat Matter Eater Lad, Flash #115, Fat Flash, Jimmy Olsen #49, Fat Jimmy Olsen, Lois Lane #5, Fat Lois Lane, Superman #221, Fat Superman

Fat Collage Key 

Action Comics #383 (Fat Supergirl), Adventure Comics #298 (Fat Lang Lang, Fat Superboy), Adventure Comics #330 (Fat Superboy), Adventure Comics #345 (Fat Matter Eater Lad), Flash #115 (Fat Flash), Jimmy Olsen #49 (Fat Jimmy Olsen), Lois Lane #5 (Fat Lois Lane), Superman #221 (Fat Superman)

Freak Transformations

Freak Transformations, Freak Collage Key , Action Comics #284, Two Headed Supergirl, Aquaman #21, Aquaman Giant Freak, Brave & Bold #68, Bat Hulk, Batman #162, Batman Creature, Challengers of the Unknown #50, Giant Green Freak, Jimmy Olsen #53, Giant Turtle Man, Jimmy Olsen #59, Fat Freak, Lois Lane #66, Lois Lane with Green Furry Feet, Rip Hunter Time Master #28, Giant Blue Fanged Creature

Freak Collage Key

Action Comics #284 (Two Headed Supergirl), Aquaman #21 (Aquaman Giant Freak), Brave & Bold #68 (Bat Hulk), Batman #162 (Batman Creature), Challengers of the Unknown #50 (Giant Green Freak), Jimmy Olsen #53 (Giant Turtle Man), Jimmy Olsen #59 (Fat Freak), Lois Lane #66 (Lois Lane with Green Furry Feet), Rip Hunter Time Master #28 (Giant Blue Fanged Creature)

Gender Transformations

Gender, cross-dressing, female Krypto, Kryptonia, Cross-Dressing, Superman #349, Superman/Batman #24, Jimmy Olsen #67, Jimmy Olsen #84, Jimmy Olsen #95, Jimmy Olsen #159, Bah, Hembeck! #4, Real Girl #6 

Gender Collage Key

Superboy #101, Superman #349, Superman/Batman #24, Jimmy Olsen #67, Jimmy Olsen #84, Jimmy Olsen #95.  Incredibly there are some gender bending transformations is the normally stodgy pages of DC Comics.  Jimmy Olsen was a cross-dresser in Jimmy Olsen #67, 84, 95, 159; Bah, Hembeck! #4 and Real Girl #6.  Krypto became Kryptonia in Superboy #101.  Krypto was not just turned into a female but a female collie!  This happened due to red kryptonite.  I would say the human equivalent of a breed is race.  So if Superman ran into that particular piece of Red Kryptonite then he would become a woman and also change race.  This would be a very politically correct Superman.  Superman runs into female versions of himself in Superman #349 and Superman/Batman #24.  Actually the whole topic of Superwoman versus Supergirl is rather complex but so far Superman has never been transformed into Superwoman and that’s ok with me! However, in Supergirl (vol. 4) #79 (2003) Superman is exposed to Pink Kryptonite and then shows gay tendencies.  This was a spoof of the Red Kryptonite transformations of the silver age.

Supergirl (vol. 4) #79 (2003) Superman is exposed to Pink Kryptonite and then shows gay tendencies.  This was a spoof of the Red Kryptonite transformations of the silver age.

Genie Transformations

Genie Transformations, Genie Collage Key, Detective Comics #322, Batman Genie, Jimmy Olsen #42, Jimmy Olsen Genie

Genie Collage Key

Detective Comics #322 (Batman Genie), Jimmy Olsen #42 (Jimmy Olsen Genie)

Giant Transformations

Giant Transformations, Giant Collage Key, Action #325, Giant Superboy, Aquaman #2, Giant Aqualad, Challengers of the Unknown #20, Giant Rocky, Challengers of the Unknown #36, Giant Rocky, Detective Comics #243, Giant Batman, House of Mystery #143, Giant Zook, Jimmy Olsen #77, Giant Jimmy Olsen, Superman #226, Giant Superman, Wonder Woman #136, Giant Wonder Woman

Giant Collage Key

Action Comics #325 (Giant Superboy), Aquaman #2 (Giant Aqualad), Challengers of the Unknown #20 (Giant Rocky), Challengers of the Unknown #36 (Giant Rocky), Detective Comics #243 (Giant Batman), House of Mystery #143 (Giant Zook), Jimmy Olsen #77 (Giant Jimmy Olsen), Superman #226 (Giant Superman), Wonder Woman #136 (Giant Wonder Woman)

Giant Head Transformations

Giant Head Transformations, Giant Head Collage Key, Action Comics #256, Ultra Superman, Adventure Comics #324, Evolvo Lad, Blackhawk #205, Giant Headed Blackhawk, Challengers of the Unknown #39, Giant Headed Rocky, Jimmy Olsen #22, Super-Brain of Jimmy Olsen, Lois Lane #27, Lois Lane’s Super-Brain, Superman #224, Super Baby, World’s Finest #151, Batman of 800,000 AD

Giant Head Collage Key

Action Comics #256 (Ultra Superman), Adventure Comics #324 (Evolvo Lad), Blackhawk #205 (Giant Headed Blackhawk), Challengers of the Unknown #39 (Giant Headed Rocky), Jimmy Olsen #22 (Super-Brain of Jimmy Olsen), Lois Lane #27 (Lois Lane’s Super-Brain), Superman #224 (Super Baby), World’s Finest #151 (Batman of 800,000 AD)

Actually the Super Baby in Superman #224 should not be included since this is not a transformed Superman but his mutant baby.  However, the inclusion makes sense artistically.

Half Body Transformations

Half Body Transformations, Half Body Collage Key, Action Comics #290, Flash #146, Green Lantern #29

Half Body Collage Key

Action Comics #290 (One half body super, one half body not super), Flash #146 (Flash top, Mirror Master bottom), Green Lantern #29 (One half body visible, One half body gone)

Handicap

Handicap, Handicap Collage Key, Adventure Comics #259, Blind Superboy, Adventure Comics #332

Handicap Collage Key

Adventure Comics #259 (Blind Superboy), Adventure Comics #332 (Lighting Lad loses arm)

Jungle Transformations

Jungle Transformations, Jungle Collage Key, Batman #72, Jungle Batman, Jimmy Olsen #10, Jungle Jimmy Olsen, Jimmy Olsen #98, Jungle Jimmy, Lois Lane #11, Leopard Girl, Lois Lane #124, Jungle Queen

Jungle Collage Key

Batman #72 (Jungle Batman), Jimmy Olsen #10 (Jungle Jimmy Olsen), Jimmy Olsen #98 (Jungle Jimmy), Lois Lane #11 (Leopard Girl), Lois Lane #124 (Jungle Queen) 

King Transformations

King Transformations, King Collage Key, Action Comics #244, Undersea King, Action Comics, King Superman, Jimmy Olsen #3, King Olsen, World’s Finest #111, Indian Superman King, Superboy #32, King Superboy, World’s Finest #165 (King Superman, King Batman, World’s Finest  #240, King Superman

King Collage Key 

Action Comics #244 (Undersea King), Action Comics # (King Superman), Batman #125 (King Batman), Jimmy Olsen #3 (King Olsen), World’s Finest #111 (Indian Superman King)

Mermaid Transformations

Mermaid Transformations, Action Comics #284, Mermaid Supergirl, Lois Lane #12 , Mermaid Lois Lane, Superboy #194, Mermaid Superboy, Superman #139, Superman Merman

Mermaid Transformations Collage Key

Action Comics #284 (Mermaid Supergirl), Lois Lane #12 (Mermaid Lois Lane), Superboy #194, Mermaid Superboy, Superman #139 (Superman Merman),

Mirror Transformations

Mirror Transformations, Mirror Collage Key, Flash #124, Mirror-Flash, Justice League of America #7, Fun-House Mirror, World’s Finest #121, Mirror Batman

Mirror Collage Key

Flash #124 (Mirror-Flash), Justice League of America #7 (Fun-House Mirror), World’s Finest #121 (Mirror Batman)

Negative Being Transformations

Negative Transformations, Negative Collage Key, Detective #284, Negative Batman, Mystery in Space #78, World’s Finest #126, Negative Superman,

Negative Collage Key 

Detective Comics #284 (Negative Batman), Mystery in Space #78, World’s Finest #126 (Negative Superman)

The Negative Superman should not be included since this is not a transformed Superman but another Superman but the decision to include makes sense visually and most of all I needed two covers to justify a category.  Possibly, the Negative Superman should also be included in the Doppelganger category.  Creating taxonomy of transformations has not been easy!

Old Transformations

Old Transformations, Old Collage Key,  Action Comics #251, Oldest Man in Metropolis, Action Comics #270, Superman’s Old Age, Action Comics #396, Crippled and Old Superman, Action Comics #397 (Part II), Batman #119, Rip Van Batman, Flash #157, Oldest Man Alive, Jimmy Olsen #, Old Jimmy Olsen, Lois Lane #, Lois Lane’s Old Age

Old Collage Key

 Action Comics #251 (Oldest Man in Metropolis), Action Comics #270 (Superman’s Old Age), Action Comics #396 (Crippled and Old Superman), Action Comics #397 (Part II), Batman #119 (Rip Van Batman), Flash #157 (Oldest Man Alive), Jimmy Olsen # (Old Jimmy Olsen), Lois Lane # (Lois Lane’s Old Age)

Phantom/Ghost/Invisible Transformations

Ghost Collage Key, Action Comics #595, Superman Ghost, Adventure Comics #357, The Ghost of Ferro Lad, Blackhawk #127, Blackhawk Ghost, Superman #186, Clark Kent Ghost, Superman Ghost, World’s Finest #130, Batman Ghost

Ghost Collage Key

Action Comics #595 (Superman Ghost), Adventure Comics #357 (The Ghost of Ferro Lad), Blackhawk #127 (The Ghost of Blackhawk), Superman #186 (Clark Kent Ghost vs. Superman Ghost), World’s Finest #130 (Batman Ghost)

Phantom Collage Key, Action Comics #131, Superman in 4th Dimension, Adventure Comics #283, The Phantom Superboy, Green Lantern #20, Phantom Green Lantern, Jimmy Olsen #12, Invisible Jimmy Olsen, Jimmy Olsen #40, Lois Lane #33, Phantom Lois Lane, Lois Lane #101, Invisible Lois Lane, Superboy #162, The Super-Phantom of Smallville

Phantom Collage Key

Action Comics #131(Superman in 4th Dimension), Adventure Comics #283 (The Phantom Superboy), Green Lantern #20 (Phantom Green Lantern), Jimmy Olsen #12 (Invisible Jimmy Olsen – title), Jimmy Olsen #40 (Invisible Jimmy Olsen – title), Lois Lane #33 (Phantom Lois Lane), Lois Lane #101 (Invisible Lois Lane), Superboy #162 (The Super-Phantom of Smallville)

In the Silver Age the words phantom and invisible are used in a sloppy manner. For example, Jimmy Olsen is twice turned into a phantom i.e. an insubstantial and invisible being but the title refers to an invisible Jimmy Olsen rather than a phantom Jimmy Olsen.  This is rather strange since the Legion of Superheroes of the Silver Age has a Phantom Girl versus an Invisible Kid and their powers are very well delineated.  You can see the Phantom Girl but not touch her.  You can touch the Invisible Kid but can’t see him.  Only by having both the powers of the Invisible Kid and the Phantom Girl could you have the powers of a ghost! 

However, I would say the Phantom Zone precedent means that a being that is both invisible and insubstantial due to scientific means is a Phantom.  Silver Age science even established that the Phantom Girl could visit the Phantom Zone and say “hello” to Mon-El but the Invisible Kid could not enter the Phantom Zone.  Ghost Boy could have kept Mon-El company 24/7, if he had wanted to and that might have been a nice subplot I had never thought about at the time.  Ghosts as opposed to phantoms have supernatural origins and generally control of both their visibility and maybe their insubstantial nature.  Are you confused?  Well too bad because if you had grown up on Silver Age comic books then this would all make perfect sense.  Still the ghosts should be easy enough to label!

However, ghosts in the DC universe often turn out to be phantoms i.e. there is a scientific rather than supernatural explanation.  The Ferro Lad ghost turns out to be a controller created phantom but the real Ferro Lad ghost then causes the controller to die of fright.  Because of all this terminology confusion, the decision was made to make one category for phantom, ghost and invisible transformations.  The visual effect is the same and comic books are all about the visual effect.

Radioactive

Radioactive, Radioactive Collage Key, Detective #17, Radioactive Batman, Jimmy Olsen #17, Radioactive Jimmy Olsen, Radioactive Boy,

Radioactive Collage Key

Detective Comics #17 (Radioactive Batman), Jimmy Olsen #17 (Radioactive Jimmy Olsen)

Robot Transformations

Robot Transformations, Robot Collage Key, Action Comics #225, Robot Superman, Action Comics #, Clark Kent Metallo, Adventure Comics #237, Ma and Pa Kent Robots, Green Lantern #36, Green Lantern Robot, Jimmy Olsen #70, Robot Jimmy Olsen, Jimmy Olsen #130, The Computer-Man of Steel,

Robot Collage Key 

Action Comics #225 (Robot Superman), Action Comics # (Clark Kent Metallo), Adventure Comics #237 (Ma and Pa Kent Robots), Green Lantern #36 (Green Lantern Robot), Jimmy

Small Person Transformations

Small Transformations, Small Collage Key, Action Comics #283, Small Supergirl, Adventure Comics #330, Small Colossal Boy, Flash #109, Small Flash, Justice League of America #10, Finger Puppet Justice League, Justice League of America #18, Shrunken Justice League, Justice League of America #60, Bee Drone Justice League, Superman #245, Super-Mite, Detective Comics #127, Small Batman and Robin, Detective Comics #148

Small Collage Key 

Action Comics #283 (Small Supergirl), Adventure Comics #330 (Small Colossal Boy), Detective Comics #127 (Small Batman and Robin), Detective Comics #148 (Small Batman and Robin), Flash #109 (Small Flash), Justice League of America #10 (Finger Puppet Justice League), Justice League of America #18 (Shrunken Justice League), Justice League of America #60 (Bee Drone Justice League), Superman #245 (Super-Mite)

Tree Being Transformation

Trees, Trees Collage Key, Justice League of America #9, Justice League Trees, Lois Lane #112, Superman Tree

Trees Collage Key

Justice League of America #9 (Justice League Trees), Lois Lane #112 (Superman Tree)

Underwater Being Transformations

Underwater Transformations, Underwater Collage Key, Batman #118, Merman Batman, Superman #244, Superman’s Undersea Kingdom

Underwater Collage Key

Batman #118 (Merman Batman), Superman #244 (Superman’s Undersea Kingdom)

Werewolf Transformations

Werewolf Transformations, Werewolf Collage Key, Action #283, Linda Danver’s Werewolf, Jimmy Olsen #44, Jimmy Olsen Wolf-Man, Superboy #116, Superboy #180

Werewolf Collage Key

Action Comics #283 (Linda Danver’s Werewolf), Jimmy Olsen #44 (Jimmy Olsen Wolf-Man), Superboy #116, Superboy #180

CONCLUSION

Transformations at DC comics during the Silver Age showed definite patterns.  Certain heroes were transformed more than others.  Batman and Superman suffered a lot of transformations but this could be function of the fact that both Batman and Superman were in multiple titles that had extremely long runs.  Transformations were popular and the transformation of the top superheroes at DC during the Silver Age made marketing sense.  Lois Lane did not have as many transformations as Jimmy Olsen but her 12 transformations seems like a high number given that she only starred in one title.  The marketing logic might have been to use popular transformations that worked with one of the Superman family members with the other Superman family members that had a comic book title and hope for similar success.  Wonder Woman suffered the doppelganger transformation five times and this is an extreme case of the same transformation being used again and again with the same character almost obsessively.  Wonder Woman in the Silver Age was a strange little title and someday I am going to write an in depth analysis of what was done to Wonder Woman during this time period.  Transformations at DC during the Silver Age are almost always one-shot affairs.  The exception is in the Legion of Superheroes were Lightning Lad lost his arm for several issues and Matter Lad was turned into a fat boy for several issues. 

Marvel handles transformations in an entirely different manner.  Transformation is an ongoing plot device in the case of the Hulk, Iron Man’s many armors, the Thing, the six-armed Spider-Man and X-23’s vampirism.  Even the relatively short term transformation of Captain America into a werewolf lasts more than one issue.  I will eventually write another DC vs. Marvel article comparing the role of transformation in the comic books of the two companies.

DC Heroes Transformed! Part I Transformations Organized by Hero

INTRODUCTION

Many comic fans know that Jimmy Olsen suffered any number of transformations during the Silver Age at DC Comics.  This article will explore the transformations of the Silver Age first by hero and then by condition.  A transformation for the purposes of this article is limited to an outwardly physical transformation rather than an internal psychological transformation. 

Transformations involving costumes are more problematic.  There are so many one-shot novelty costume changes among Silver Age heroes that this should really be another article.  A decision was made to only include categories of costume change that occurred more than once rather than one-shot costumes including: caveman wear, jungle wear, and kingly wear. 

The hero titles analyzed include Aquaman, Batman, Challengers of the Unknown, the Flash, Green Lantern, Justice League of America, Lois Lane, Superboy, Supergirl, Superman, and Wonder Woman.  Jimmy Olsen is excluded as a character but not from the types section since I have dealt with Jimmy Olsen’s transformations in another article.  

The transformations were also broken down by type and this will be dealt with in part II, the follow up post.  The types of transformations that occurred more than one time and generally with more than one hero include alien transformation, animal transformation, baby transformation, caveman transformation, devil transformation, doppelganger transformation, fat transformation, freak transformation, genie transformation, giant transformation, giant head transformation, half body transformation, jungle person transformation, king transformation, mirror transformation, negative being transformation, old, phantom/ghost/invisible transformation, radioactive transformation, robot transformation, small person transformation, tree being transformation, underwater being transformation, and werewolf  transformation.

TRANSFORMATIONS ORGANIZED BY HERO

Aquaman Transformations

Aquaman Transformations, Aquaman Collage Key, Aquaman # 2, Giant Aquaboy, Aquaman # 16, Alien Aquaman, Aquaman # 21, Giant Aquaman

Aquaman Collage Key

Aquaman # 2 (Giant Aquaboy), Aquaman # 16 (Alien Aquaman), Aquaman # 21 (Giant Aquaman)

Batman Transformations

Batman Collage Key

Batman Transformations, Batman #72, Jungle Batman, Batman #118, Underwater Batman, Batman #119, Old Batman, Batman #140, Batman and Robin Aliens, Batman #147, Batman Baby, Batman #162, Batman Freak,

Batman #72 (Jungle Batman), Batman #118 (Underwater Batman), Batman #119 (Old Batman), Batman #125 (King Batman), Batman #134 (Two-Dimensional Batman and Robin), Batman #140 (Batman and Robin Aliens), Batman #147 (Batman Baby), Batman #162 (Batman Freak),

Brave & Bold Batman Transformations

Batman in Brave & Bold Collage Key

Brave & Bold #68 (Batman Hulk), Brave and Bold #99 (Batman Hyde Face),

Detective #243, Giant Batman, Detective Comics #251, Alien Batman, Detective Comics #268, Glowing Batman, Detective Comics #275, Zebra Batman, Detective Comics #284, Negative Batman, Detective Comics #294, Calcium Batman, Detective Comics #301, Radioactive Batman, Detective Comics #302, Bronze Batman

Detective Comics 1 Collage Key

Detective Comics #127 (Small Batman and Robin), Detective Comics #148 (Small Batman and Robin), Detective #243 (Giant Batman), Detective Comics #251 (Alien Batman), Detective Comics #268 (Glowing Batman), Detective Comics #275 (Zebra Batman), Detective Comics #284 (Negative Batman), Detective Comics #294 (Calcium Batman), Detective Comics #301 (Radioactive Batman), Detective Comics #302 (Bronze Batman)

Detective Comics #316, Energy Batman, Detective Comics #322, Genie Batman

Detective Comics 2 Collage Key

Detective Comics #316 (Energy Batman), Detective Comics #322 (Genie Batman)

World’s Finest #121, Mirror, World’s Finest # 128, Freak, World’s Finest #138, Batman Caveman, World’s Finest #139, Batman Phantom, World’s Finest #151, Batman Big Brain,

Batman in World’s Finest Collage Key

World’s Finest #121 (Mirror), World’s Finest # 128 (Freak), World’s Finest #138 (Batman Caveman), World’s Finest #139 (Batman Phantom), World’s Finest #151 (Batman Big Brain)

Challengers of the Unknown Transformations

Challengers of the Unknown Transformations, Challengers of the Unknown Collage Key, Challengers of the Unknown #20, Giant, Challengers of the Unknown #36, Giant, Challengers of the Unknown #39, Big Brain, Challengers of the Unknown #50, Freak,

Challengers of the Unknown Collage Key

Challengers of the Unknown #20 (Giant), Challengers of the Unknown #36 (Giant), Challengers of the Unknown #39 (Big Brain), Challengers of the Unknown #50 (Freak)

Flash Transformations

Flash Transformations, Flash Collage Key, Flash #109, Small Flash, Flash #115, Fat Flash, Flash #126, Mirror Flash, Flash #133, Puppet Flash, Flash #146, Half Body Flash, Flash #157, Old Flash

Flash Collage Key

Flash #109 (Small Flash), Flash #115 (Fat Flash), Flash #126 (Mirror Flash), Flash #133 (Puppet Flash), Flash #146 (Half Body Flash), Flash #157 (Old Flash)

Green Lantern Transformations

Green Lantern Transformations, Green Lantern Collage Key, Green Lantern #20, Phantom Green Lantern, Green Lantern #29, Half Body Green Lantern, Green Lantern #36, Robot Green Lantern

Green Lantern Collage Key

Green Lantern #20 (Phantom Green Lantern), Green Lantern #29 (Half Body Green Lantern), Green Lantern #36 (Robot Green Lantern)

Justice League of America Transformations

Justice League of America Collage Key

Justice League of America #7 (Mirror), Justice League of America #9 (Trees), Justice League of America #10 (Finger Puppets), Justice League of America #18 (Small), Justice League of America #60 (Drones)

Lois Lane Transformations

Lois Lane Transformations, Lois Lane Collage Key, Jimmy Olsen #66, Cat Headed Lois Lane, Lois Lane #5, Fat Lois Lane, Lois Lane #10, Baby Lois Lane, Lois Lane #11, Jungle Lois Lane, Lois Lane #13, Cat Headed Lois Lane, Lois Lane #27, Giant Head, Lois Lane #33, Phantom Lois Lane, Lois Lane #40, Old Lois Lane, Lois Lane #66, Freak, Lois Lane #92, Centaur Lois Lane, Lois Lane #101, Invisible Lois Lane, Lois Lane #106, Black Lois Lane, Lois Lane #107, Snow, Lois Lane #124, Jungle Lois Lane

Lois Lane Collage Key

Jimmy Olsen #66 (Cat Headed Lois Lane), Lois Lane #5 (Fat Lois Lane), Lois Lane #10 (Baby Lois Lane), Lois Lane #11 (Jungle Lois Lane), Lois Lane #13 (Cat Headed Lois Lane), Lois Lane #12 (Mermaid Lois Lane), Lois Lane #27 (Giant Head), Lois Lane #33 (Phantom Lois Lane), Lois Lane #40 (Old Lois Lane), Lois Lane #66 (Freak), Lois Lane #92 (Centaur Lois Lane), Lois Lane #101 (Invisible Lois Lane), Lois Lane #106 (Black Lois Lane), Lois Lane #107 (Snow), Lois Lane #124 (Jungle Lois Lane)

Lois Lane is given a cat head not once but twice!  I guess this means that Lois was considered catty in the Silver Age.  At least the cat heads were different colors and the art wasn’t just recycled even if the concept was recycled.

Ma and Pa Kent Transformations

Ma and Pa Kent Transformations, Adventure Comics #237, Robot Ma & Pa Kent, Adventure Comics #270, Ma and Pa Kent Aliens

Ma and Pa Kent Collage Key

Adventure Comics #237 (Robot Ma & Pa Kent), Adventure Comics #270 (Ma and Pa Kent Aliens)

Superboy Transformations

Superboy, Superboy #32, King Superboy, Superboy #50, Superboy #116, Werewolf Superboy, Superboy #142, Superboy #162, Phantom Superboy, Superboy #178, Superboy #180, Superboy #184, Manbat Superboy, Superboy #194, Mermaid Superboy

Superboy Collage Key

Superboy #32 (King Superboy), Superboy #50 (Giant Superboy), Superboy #116 (Werewolf Superboy), Superboy #142 (Giant Ape Superboy), Superboy #162 (Phantom Superboy), Superboy #178 (Manbat Superboy), Superboy #180 (Werewolf Superboy), Superboy #194(Mermaid Superboy),

Superboy Transformations, Superboy Collage Key, Adventure Comics #255, Doppelganger, Adventure Comics #259, Blind Superboy, Adventure Comics #270, Alien Ma and Pa Kent, Adventure #283, Phantom Superboy, Adventure Comics #298, Fat Superboy, Fat Lana Lang, Adventure Comics # 308, Adventure Comics #315, Giant Superboy, Adventure Comics #330, Fat Superboy

Superboy in Adventure Comics Collage Key

Adventure Comics #255 (Doppelganger), Adventure Comics #259 (Blind Superboy), Adventure Comics #270 (Alien Ma and Pa Kent), Adventure Comics #283 (Phantom Superboy), Adventure Comics #298 (Fat Superboy, Fat Lana Lang), Adventure Comics # 308, Adventure Comics #315 (Giant Superboy), Adventure Comics #330 (Fat Superboy)

Supergirl Transformations

Supergirl Transformations, Supergirl Collage Key, Action Comics #267, Adult Supergirl, Action Comics #283, Fat Supergirl, Werewolf Supergirl, Small Supergirl, Action Comics #284, Two headed Supergirl, Mermaid Supergirl, Action Comics #324, Devil Supergirl, Supergirl #8, Medusa Haired Supergirl, Medusa Hair Supergirl, Medusa Hair

Supergirl Collage Key

Action Comics #267(Adult Supergirl), Action Comics #283 (Fat Supergirl, Werewolf Supergirl, Small Supergirl), Action Comics #284 (Two headed Supergirl, Mermaid Supergirl), Action Comics #324 (Devil Supergirl), Supergirl #8 (Medusa Hair)

Superman Transformations

Superman Transformations, Action Comics, Action Comics Collage Key, Action Comics #131, Phantom Superman, Action Comics #225, Robot Superman, Action Comics #239, Alien Superman, Action Comics #243, Lion Headed Superman, Action Comics #244, Underwater Superman, Action Comics #245, Small, Action Comics #251, Old, Action Comics #256, Giant Brain, Action Comics #270, Old, Action Comics #275, Third Eye

Action Comics 1 Collage Key

Action Comics #131 (Phantom Superman), Action Comics #225 (Robot Superman), Action Comics #239 (Alien Superman), Action Comics #243 (Lion Headed Superman), Action Comics #244 (Underwater Superman), Action Comics #245 (Small), Action Comics #251 (Old), Action Comics #256 (Giant Brain), Action Comics #270 (Old), Action Comics #275 (Third Eye)

Action Comics 2 Collage Key

Action Comics #284, Super Baby, Action Comics #290, Half Body, Action Comics #296, Ant Superman, Action Comics #303, Freak, Action Comics #312, King, Doppelganger, Action Comics #317, Colored Faces, Action Comics #325, Giant Superman, Action Comics #396, Action Comics #397, Action Comics #595, Phantom

Action Comics #284 (Super Baby), Action Comics #290 (Half Body), Action Comics #296 (Ant Superman), Action Comics #303 (Freak), Action Comics #312 (King and Doppelganger), Action Comics #317 (Colored Faces), Action Comics #325 (Giant Superman), Action Comics #396 (Old), Action Comics #397 (Old), Action Comics #595 (Phantom)

Superman Title

Superman Title, Superman Title Collage Key, Superman #139, Merman, Superman #139, Long Hair, Long Nails, Superman #165, Lion Headed Superman,  Superman #171, Superman Caveman, Superman #186, Phantom Superman, Superman #221, Fat Superman, Superman #226, Giant Superman, Superman #263, Molten Superman,

Superman Title Collage Key

Superman #139 (Merman), Superman #139 (Long Hair, Long Nails), Superman #165 (Lion Headed Superman), Superman #171 (Superman Caveman), Superman #186 (Phantom Superman), Superman #221 (Fat Superman), Superman #226 (Giant Superman), Superman #263 (Molten Superman)

Various Titles

Various Titles, Various Titles Collage Key, Jimmy Olsen #81, Devil Superman, Jimmy Olsen #130, Robot Superman, Lois Lane #112, Tree Superman, World’s Finest #105, Alien Superman, World’s Finest #126, King Superman, World’s Finest #138, Caveman Superman, World’s Finest #151, Caveman Superman, World’s Finest #165,King Batman, World’s Finest  #240, King Superman

Various Titles Collage Key

Jimmy Olsen #81 (Devil Superman), Jimmy Olsen #130 (Robot Superman), Lois Lane #112 (Tree Superman), World’s Finest #105 (Alien Superman), World’s Finest #138 (Caveman Superman), World’s Finest#151 (Caveman Superman), World’s Finest #165 (King Superman), World’s Finest #240 (King Superman)

Wonder Woman Transformations

Wonder Woman Transformations, Wonder Woman Collage Key, Wonder Woman #62, Doppelganger, Triplets, Wonder Woman #90, Giant Doppelganger, Wonder Woman #98, Doppelganger, Wonder Woman #102, Wonder Woman #111, Wonder Woman #136, Giant Wonder Woman

Wonder Woman Collage Key

Wonder Woman #62 (Doppelganger, Triplets), Wonder Woman #90 (Giant Doppelganger), Wonder Woman #98 (Doppelganger), Wonder Woman #102 (Doppelganger, triplets again!), Wonder Woman #111 (Doppelganger), Wonder Woman #136 (Giant Wonder Woman)

The doppelganger theme dominates the transformation of Wonder Woman that is unique among the heroes of the Silver Age.  I did not even include issues in which Wonder Woman is not transformed but fights some sort of robot double.  Wonder Woman is also constantly reduced not via transformation but by fighting giant opponents.  Wonder Woman is then treated as a toy or trinket, or an object by the giant opponent.   Reduction is used to create the objectification of Wonder Woman.  In Wonder Woman #122, Wonder Woman fights a giant robotic double and in this issue the reader sees the juxtaposition of the objectification themes of reduction and duplication.  The giant doppelganger is clearly not a transformation since this double is clearly a robot.  I do include the similar plot of Wonder Woman #90 since the giant double challenges the identity of Wonder Woman and is therefore transformational. 

Superboy (Adventure Comics #255) and later Superman (Action #312) face a doppelganger dilemma when red kryptonite splits him into two selves. In both cases, Superman faces a Clark Kent doppelganger.  The Superman doppelganger plots also take a very different direction since there are not two Supermans but rather the two sides of Superman are split physically and must see reunification to create a whole Superman identity.  In the case of Wonder Woman the doppelganger is not a side of Wonder Woman but a duplicate that challenges Wonder Woman’s unique identity.

The objectification of women as sex objects is recurrent feminist theme.  One of the characteristics of an object as opposed to a subject in existential terms is reproducibility.  An object is reproducible. A person is unique and not reproducible.  Even in a future of clones presumably we have a unique soul even if a physical duplicate could be made. The industrial reproduction of feminine beauty and images is a hallmark of 20th century mass media and consumer culture.  Paradoxically women have greater opportunities and education at the precise moment when technological objectification reaches and apex causing a unique post modern historical feminine anxiety.  The constant use of doppelganger themes in the Silver Age Wonder Woman title may be an unconscious response to this feminine anxiety and a naïve form of pop culture driven existential exploration.

Next:

DC Heroes Transformed! Part II Transformations Organized by Type